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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Consumption of ultra-processed foods and health outcomes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies

First author, year Study design Study period, area Study population, age Sample size Exposure measures Health outcome Outcome measures Comparison Effect size (95% CI)
Rico-Campà, 2019 [24] Prospective cohort study 1999–2014, Spain University graduates,
20-91y
19,899 FFQ All-cause mortality Medical records, database Q4 vs. Q1 HR: 1.62 (1.13, 2.33)
Schnabel, 2019 [25] Prospective cohort study 2009–2017, France Adults participants,
≥45y
44,551 Dietary records, interview, biomarkers All-cause mortality Clinical data Q4 vs. Q1 HR: 1.25 (0.99, 1.57)
Blanco-Rojo, 2019 [26] Prospective cohort study 2008–2016, Spain Adult participants, ≥18y 11,898 Questionnaire All-cause mortality Computerized search Q4 vs. Q1 HR: 1.44 (1.01, 2.07)
Kim, 2019 [27] Prospective cohort study 1988–2011, USA Adult participants, ≥20y 11,898 Dietary records,
questionnaire
All-cause mortality
Cardiovascular disease mortality
Database Q4 vs. Q1 HR: 1.30 (1.08, 1.57)
HR: 1.13 (0.74, 1.71)
Srour, 2019 [28] Prospective cohort study 2009–2018, France Adult participants, ≥18y 105,159 Dietary records, interview, biomarkers All cardiovascular diseases
Coronary heart diseases
Cerebrovascular diseases
Questionnaire, medical records, database Q4 vs. Q1 HR: 1.23 (1.04, 1.45)
HR: 1.18 (0.93, 1.52)
HR: 1.23 (1.00, 1.53)
Mendonça, 2017 [29] Prospective cohort study 1999–2015, Spain University graduates, 20-91y 14,790 FFQ Hypertension Self-reported,
clinical data
T3 vs. T1 HR: 1.21 (1.06, 1.37)
Melo, 2018 [41] Cross-sectional study 2012, Brazil 9th graders, NC 109,104 Questionnaire Asthma
Wheezing
Questionnaire Q5 vs. Q1 OR: 1.27 (1.15, 1.41)
OR: 1.42 (1.35, 1.50)
Schnabel, 2018 [38] Prospective cohort study 2008–2018, France Adult participants, ≥18y 33,343 Dietary records,
questionnaire
Functional gastrointestinal disorders Questionnaire, medical history, symptoms Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 1.25 (1.12, 1.39)
Adjibade, 2019 [36] Prospective cohort study 2009–2018, France Adult volunteers, ≥18y 26,730 Dietary records Depression Clinical data Q4 vs. Q1 HR: 1.30 (1.15, 1.47)
Gómez-Donoso, 2018 [37] Prospective cohort study 1999–2016, Spain University graduates, NC 14,907 FFQ Depression Questionnaire,
clinical interview
Q4 vs. Q1 HR: 1.33 (1.07, 1.64)
Steele, 2019 [30] Cross-sectional study 2009–2014, USA Adult participants, ≥20y 6385 Interview Metabolic syndrome Interviews, health examination Q5 vs. Q1 OR: 1.28 (1.09, 1.50)
Lavigne-Robichaud,
2018 [31]
Cross-sectional study 2005–2009, Canada Adult participants, ≥18y 811 Dietary records Metabolic syndrome Clinical data Q5 vs. Q1 OR: 1.90 (1.14, 3.17)
Juul, 2018 [32] Cross-sectional study 2005–2014, USA Adults participants, 20–64y 15,977 Interview Overweight
Obesity
Abdominal obesity
Clinical data Q5 vs. Q1 OR: 1.48 (1.25, 1.76)
OR: 1.53 (1.29, 1.81)
OR: 1.62 (1.39, 1.89)
Louzada, 2015 [33] Cross-sectional study 2008–2009, Brazil Individuals, ≥10y 30,243 Dietary records Overweight
Obesity
Clinical data Q5 vs. Q1 OR: 1.26 (0.95, 1.69)
OR: 1.98 (1.23, 3.12)
Mendonca, 2016 [35] Prospective cohort study 1999–2012, Spain University graduates,
middle-aged
8451 FFQ Overweight Self-reported Q4 vs. Q1 HR: 1.26 (1.10, 1.45)
Nardocci, 2019 [16] Cross-sectional study 2004–2005, Canada Adult participants, ≥18y 19,363 Dietary records Obesity Clinical data (32% self-reported) Q5 vs. Q1 OR: 1.32 (1.05, 1.57)
Silva, 2018 [34] Cross-sectional study 2008–2010, Brazil Civil servants from universities and research organizations, 35–64y 8977 FFQ Overweight
Obesity
Clinical data Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 1.31 (1.13, 1.51) OR: 1.41 (1.18, 1.69)
Fiolet, 2018 [39] Prospective cohort study 2009–2017, France Adult volunteers, ≥18y 104,980 Dietary records Overall cancer
Prostate cancer
Colorectal cancer
Breast cancer
Questionnaire, medical records, database Q4 vs. Q1 HR: 1.23 (1.08, 1.40)
HR: 0.93 (0.61, 1.40)
HR: 1.23 (1.08, 1.40)
HR: 1.13 (0.89, 1.42)
Sartorelli, 2019 [40] Cross-sectional study 2011–2012, Brazil. Adult women, ≥20y 785 Dietary records Obesity
Overweight
Gestational diabetes mellitus
Clinical data T3 vs. T1 OR: 3.06 (1.27, 3.37)
OR: 1.17 (0.75, 1.82)
OR: 0.82 (0.49, 1.36)
Sandoval-Insausti, 2019 [42] Prospective cohort study 2008–2012, Spain Individuals, ≥60y 1822 Interview Frailty Clinical data Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 3.67 (2.00, 6.73)
  1. Abbreviation: FFQ food frequency questionnaire, HR hazard ratio, OR odds ratio, Q quartile or quintile, T tertile, NC not clear