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Table 6 Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of cardiovascular risk factors according to moderate- and high-carbohydrate diets, stratified by protein source in younger adults (aged 19–49 years)

From: A moderate-carbohydrate diet with plant protein is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk factors: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2017

Men Moderate carbohydrate diet with plant protein (MCP)a
(n = 295)
Moderate carbohydrate diet with animal protein (MCA)a (n = 774) High carbohydrate diet with plant protein (HCP)a
(n = 606)
High carbohydrate diet with animal protein (HCA)a
(n = 112)
 Dyslipidemia
  Elevated total cholesterol 1.00b 2.22 (1.16–4.24) 2.57 (1.34–4.91) 2.56 (1.00–6.56)
  Elevated triglycerides 1.00 1.04 (0.70–1.55) 1.10 (0.72–1.67) 1.00 (0.50–2.02)
  Elevated LDL-cholesterol 1.00 2.20 (0.96–5.04) 3.02 (1.33–6.87) 2.55 (0.82–7.97)
  Reduced HDL-cholesterol 1.00 1.75 (1.15–2.67) 1.92 (1.26–2.92) 3.69 (1.98–6.89)
 Metabolic syndrome 1.00 2.07 (1.29–3.32) 2.97 (1.76–5.03) 3.96 (1.87–8.40)
  Increased waist circumference 1.00 1.13 (0.80–1.60) 0.91 (0.64–1.31) 1.34 (0.77–2.33)
  Elevated blood pressure 1.00 0.84 (0.60–1.19) 1.29 (0.89–1.86) 0.81 (0.45–1.45)
  Reduced HDL-cholesterol 1.00 1.75 (1.15–2.67) 1.92 (1.26–2.92) 3.69 (1.98–6.89)
  Elevated triglycerides 1.00 1.42 (1.02–1.98) 1.61 (1.12–2.31) 1.46 (0.83–2.57)
  Elevated fasting glucose 1.00 1.35 (0.89–2.06) 2.06 (1.34–3.18) 1.94 (1.02–3.69)
 Hypertension 1.00 1.01 (0.63–1.64) 1.72 (1.03–2.87) 1.01 (0.45–2.25)
Women MCP (n = 452) MCA (n = 988) HCP (n = 1163) HCA (n = 174)
 Dyslipidemia
  Elevated total cholesterol 1.00 2.21 (1.11–4.38) 2.38 (1.20–4.73) 2.02 (0.75–5.41)
  Elevated triglycerides 1.00 0.94 (0.50–1.76) 0.88 (0.47–1.66) 1.18 (0.47–2.98)
  Elevated LDL-cholesterol 1.00 1.76 (0.84–3.70) 2.07 (0.99–4.31) 1.08 (0.31–3.78)
  Reduced HDL-cholesterol 1.00 1.07 (0.62–1.86) 1.52 (0.89–2.61) 1.34 (0.64–2.79)
 Metabolic syndrome 1.00 0.69 (0.36–1.29) 0.95 (0.51–1.77) 0.81 (0.36–1.81)
  Increased waist circumference 1.00 0.98 (0.66–1.45) 1.09 (0.76–1.58) 0.88 (0.47–1.67)
  Elevated blood pressure 1.00 1.36 (0.81–2.27) 1.14 (0.67–1.96) 1.68 (0.90–3.17)
  Reduced HDL-cholesterol 1.00 1.01 (0.77–1.34) 1.37 (1.03–1.81) 0.94 (0.60–1.48)
  Elevated triglycerides 1.00 0.76 (0.49–1.17) 0.85 (0.55–1.31) 0.88 (0.47–1.66)
  Elevated fasting glucose 1.00 1.29 (0.87–1.91) 1.57 (1.07–2.29) 1.26 (0.70–2.27)
 Hypertension 1.00 1.23 (0.56–2.72) 0.92 (0.41–2.09) 1.36 (0.44–4.21)
  1. Abbreviations: HDL High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
  2. a MCP = carbohydrate intake 50–60% of energy + plant/animal protein ≥ 1; MCA = carbohydrate intake 50–60% of energy + plant/animal protein < 1; HCP = carbohydrate intake ≥ 70% of energy + plant/animal protein ≥ 1; HCA = carbohydrate intake ≥ 70% of energy + plant/animal protein < 1
  3. b Adjusted for body mass index (except the model of waist circumference), education, household income, physical activity, smoking, survey period, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake