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Table 4 Food group consumption according to moderate- and high-carbohydrate diets, stratified by protein source

From: A moderate-carbohydrate diet with plant protein is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk factors: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2017

  Moderate carbohydrate diet with plant protein (MCP)a
(n = 981)
Moderate carbohydrate diet with animal protein (MCA)a
(n = 2209)
High carbohydrate diet with plant protein (HCP)a
(n = 4283)
High carbohydrate diet with animal protein (HCA)a
(n = 492)
P valueb
No of servings
 Grain 3.3 ± 0.0c 2.4 ± 0.0 4.0 ± 0.0 3.3 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
 MFEB 3.5 ± 0.1 5.3 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.0 2.8 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
  Meat 1.6 ± 0.1 3.4 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.0 1.2 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
  Fish 0.4 ± 0.0 0.9 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.0 1.1 ± 0.0 < 0.0001
  Eggs 0.4 ± 0.0 0.5 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.0 < 0.0001
  Beans 1.1 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.0 < 0.0001
 Vegetables 6.3 ± 0.2 6.5 ± 0.1 6.7 ± 0.1 6.0 ± 0.2 0.0102
 Fruits 1.0 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.1 2.6 ± 0.2 < 0.0001
 Milk and dairy products 0.5 ± 0.0 0.6 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.0 0.5 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
% Servingsd
 Grain 96.0 ± 1.3 69.6 ± 0.9 114.6 ± 0.8 94.9 ± 1.4 < 0.0001
 MFEB 81.2 ± 1.8 120.5 ± 1.1 41.2 ± 0.7 64.8 ± 1.2 < 0.0001
 Vegetables 80.3 ± 2.3 82.2 ± 1.4 85.0 ± 1.3 76.7 ± 2.4 0.0115
 Fruits 52.6 ± 3.8 61.8 ± 3.1 102.3 ± 3.1 121.2 ± 6.5 < 0.0001
 Milk and dairy products 45.6 ± 3.7 62.8 ± 3.0 28.9 ± 2.0 53.3 ± 5.8 < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: MFEB Meat, fish, eggs, and beans
  2. aMCP = carbohydrate intake 50–60% of energy + plant/animal protein ≥ 1; MCA = carbohydrate intake 50–60% of energy + plant/animal protein < 1; HCP = carbohydrate intake ≥ 70% of energy + plant/animal protein ≥ 1; HCA = carbohydrate intake ≥ 70% of energy + plant/animal protein < 1
  3. bLog-transformed values were used for statistical tests
  4. cValues are presented as means ± SEs after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, education, household income, physical activity, smoking, survey period, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake
  5. d%Servings = the number of servings consumed ÷ recommended number of servings based on Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans × 100