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Table 3 Energy and macronutrient intakes according to moderate- and high-carbohydrate diets, stratified by protein source

From: A moderate-carbohydrate diet with plant protein is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk factors: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2017

  Moderate carbohydrate diet with plant protein (MCP)a
(n = 981)
Moderate carbohydrate diet with animal protein (MCA)a
(n = 2209)
High carbohydrate diet with plant protein (HCP)a
(n = 4283)
High carbohydrate diet with animal protein (HCA)a
(n = 492)
P valueb
Energy (kcal) 2170.7 ± 29.9c 2235.3 ± 22.1 1871.6 ± 18.2 1783.2 ± 38.2 < 0.0001
Energy (% of EER) 98.4 ± 1.3 101.1 ± 0.9 85.9 ± 0.8 82.2 ± 1.7 < 0.0001
Carbohydrate (g) 252.0 ± 1.8 238.2 ± 1.5 348.1 ± 1.5 329.6 ± 2.8 < 0.0001
Protein (g) 64.8 ± 0.7 83.5 ± 0.7 55.2 ± 0.4 68.1 ± 0.7 < 0.0001
 Plant protein 42.3 ± 0.5 28.2 ± 0.3 38.4 ± 0.3 30.0 ± 0.4 < 0.0001
 Animal protein 22.4 ± 0.5 55.2 ± 0.6 16.7 ± 0.3 37.9 ± 0.5 < 0.0001
Fat (g) 62.1 ± 0.6 53.8 ± 0.4 24.7 ± 0.3 23.9 ± 0.6 < 0.0001
 Plant fat 43.5 ± 0.7 23.6 ± 0.4 16.7 ± 0.3 12.1 ± 0.5 < 0.0001
 Animal fat 18.6 ± 0.5 30.1 ± 0.4 8.0 ± 0.2 11.9 ± 0.4 < 0.0001
Dietary fiber (g) 23.8 ± 0.5 19.7 ± 0.3 24.9 ± 0.3 21.6 ± 0.6 < 0.0001
Energy from (%)
 Carbohydrate 56.9 ± 0.1 56.1 ± 0.1 76.3 ± 0.1 73.5 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
 Protein 14.2 ± 0.1 18.1 ± 0.1 11.9 ± 0.1 15.1 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
 Fat 28.9 ± 0.2 25.8 ± 0.1 11.8 ± 0.1 11.4 ± 0.2 < 0.0001
  SFA 8.5 ± 0.1 7.7 ± 0.1 3.5 ± 0.0 3.4 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
  MUFA 9.3 ± 0.1 8.4 ± 0.1 3.3 ± 0.0 3.2 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
  PUFA 7.4 ± 0.1 6.1 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.0 2.9 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: EER Estimated energy requirement, MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acids, SFA Saturated fatty acids
  2. aMCP = carbohydrate intake 50–60% of energy + plant/animal protein ≥ 1; MCA = carbohydrate intake 50–60% of energy + plant/animal protein < 1; HCP = carbohydrate intake ≥ 70% of energy + plant/animal protein ≥ 1; HCA = carbohydrate intake ≥ 70% of energy + plant/animal protein < 1
  3. bLog-transformed values were used for statistical tests
  4. cValues are presented as means ± SEs after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, education, household income, physical activity, smoking, survey period, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake (except the model of energy intake)