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Table 2 General characteristics of the participants according to moderate- and high-carbohydrate diets, stratified by protein source

From: A moderate-carbohydrate diet with plant protein is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk factors: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2017

n, (%)a Moderate carbohydrate diet with plant protein (MCP)b
(n = 981)
Moderate carbohydrate diet with animal protein (MCA)b
(n = 2209)
High carbohydrate diet with plant protein (HCP)b
(n = 4283)
High carbohydrate diet with animal protein (HCA)b
(n = 492)
P value
Sex      < 0.0001
 Male 392 (50.8) 992 (54.3) 1610 (45.1) 202 (50.2)  
 Female 589 (49.2) 1217 (45.7) 2673 (54.9) 290 (49.8)  
Age group (years)      < 0.0001
 19–29 230 (32.1) 541 (32.7) 328 (13.2) 85 (24.5)  
 30–49 517 (49.6) 1221 (52.1) 1441 (39.3) 201 (42.9)  
 50–64 189 (15.6) 354 (13.0) 1458 (31.8) 140 (24.1)  
 ≥ 65 45 (2.7) 93 (2.3) 1056 (15.7) 66 (8.5)  
Survey period      < 0.0001
 2013–2015 552 (57.5) 1204 (55.6) 2649 (62.8) 277 (58.2)  
 2016–2017 429 (42.5) 1005 (44.4) 1634 (37.2) 215 (41.8)  
Education      < 0.0001
 Middle school or lower 101 (8.2) 186 (7.0) 1595 (28.9) 107 (16.2)  
 High school 362 (40.1) 864 (41.5) 1364 (36.8) 177 (39.9)  
 College or higher 502 (51.7) 1115 (51.4) 1227 (34.3) 195 (43.9)  
Household income      < 0.0001
 Lowest 67 (7.0) 163 (7.4) 889 (16.8) 67 (11.9)  
 Lower middle 233 (23.4) 478 (21.6) 1164 (26.8) 117 (22.3)  
 Upper middle 335 (34.8) 757 (34.6) 1131 (28.6) 142 (29.6)  
 Highest 343 (34.7) 807 (36.4) 1089 (27.8) 164 (36.3)  
Physical activity, yesc 529 (58.7) 1106 (54.6) 1811 (46.9) 243 (53.5) < 0.0001
Alcohol consumptiond      < 0.0001
 None 356 (32.3) 745 (30.9) 2279 (48.6) 210 (37.5)  
 Moderate 499 (53.5) 1120 (52.5) 1674 (43.6) 224 (49.4)  
 High 123 (14.2) 334 (16.6) 282 (7.9) 54 (13.1)  
Smokinge      < 0.0001
 Never 638 (59.7) 1406 (60.1) 2897 (64.2) 311 (59.3)  
 Former 141 (14.8) 321 (14.4) 726 (17.7) 81 (16.9)  
 Current 199 (25.6) 472 (25.4) 606 (18.1) 95 (23.8)  
  1. a Values are presented as the weighted percentages of the participants using the complex sampling design parameters of KNHANES
  2. b MCP = carbohydrate intake 50–60% of energy + plant/animal protein ≥ 1; MCA = carbohydrate intake 50–60% of energy + plant/animal protein < 1; HCP = carbohydrate intake ≥ 70% of energy + plant/animal protein ≥ 1; HCA = carbohydrate intake ≥ 70% of energy + plant/animal protein < 1
  3. c Physical activity: “yes”, performed vigorous-intensity activities for at least 75 min, or moderate-intensity activities for at least 150 min, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity during a typical week
  4. d Alcohol consumption: “none”, no consumption of any type of alcoholic beverage or drank less than once per month over the past year, “moderate”, consumption of alcoholic beverages more than once per month over the past year, “high”, consumption of more than seven glasses of alcoholic beverages for men and five glasses of alcoholic beverages for women per occasion more than two times per week
  5. e Smoking: “never”, never smoked cigarettes of smoked < 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, “former”, smoked ≥ 100 cigarettes in their lifetime but currently not smoking, “current”, smoked ≥ 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and currently smoking