Skip to main content

Table 3 Comparison of metabolic and hormonal parameters between the thylakoid group and the placebo group at baseline and after the intervention

From: The effects of spinach-derived thylakoid supplementation in combination with calorie restriction on anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

  Thylakoid group (n = 21) Placebo group (n = 23) MD (95% CI), P
FBG (mg/dl) Baseline 93.09 (5.39) 96.56 (7.44) − 3.47 (− 7.46, 0.52), 0.086**
End 92.66 (4.70) 96.09 (6.10) − 0.28 (− 3.35, 2.79), 0.854***
MD (95% CI), P* −0.43 (−1.05, 0.19), 0.165 −0.48 (−1.36, 0.40), 0.273  
Insulin (μU/mL) Baseline 17.97 (2.45) 18.63 (2.33) − 0.65 (− 2.11, 0.80), 0.370**
End 12.57 (2.11) 17.43 (2.25) −3.73 (− 7.06,- 0.40), 0.029***
MD (95% CI), P* − 5.40 (− 6.25, − 4.55), < 0.001 −1.19 (− 1.56, − 0.83),< 0.001  
HOMA-IR Baseline 4.14 (0.69) 4.43 (0.60) −0.29 (− 0.68, 0.10), 0.143**
End 2.87 (0.49) 4.13 (0.53) −1.06 (− 1.88,-0.25), 0.011***
MD (95% CI), P* −1.27 (− 1.48, − 1.05), < 0.001 −0.31 (− 0.42, − 0.19),< 0.001  
HOMA-B Baseline 219.68 (40.36) 210.36 (55.60) 9.32 (−20.48, 39.13),0.531**
End 156.06 (37.50) 197.36 (49.16) − 40.82 (− 78.48, −3.16), 0.034***
MD (95% CI), P* −63.62 (− 73.88, − 53.37), < 0.001 −13.00 (− 17.53, − 8.46), < 0.001  
QUICKI Baseline
End
MD (95% CI), P*
0.31 (0.007)
0.33 (0.008)
0.02 (0.014, 0.02), < 0.001
0.31 (0.006)
0.31 (0.005)
0.003(0.002, 0.004), < 0.001
0.003 (−0.002, 0.007), 0.121**
0.012 (0.002, 0.022), 0.022***
NEFA (mmol/L) Baseline
End
MD (95% CI), P*
0.89 (0.06)
0.86 (0.06)
−0.03 (− 0.03, − 0.02), < 0.001
0.93 (0.07)
0.90 (0.06)
− 0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01), < 0.001
−0.03 (− 0.07, 0.005), 0.084**
0.008 (− 0.033, 0.048), 0.707***
LH (mIu/ml) Baseline 7.99 (0.42) 7.78(0.38) 0.21 (−0.03, 0.45), 0.089**
End 7.95 (0.42) 7.74 (0.36) −0.13 (− 0.315, 0.059), 0.173***
MD (95% CI), P* −0.04 (− 0.07, − 0.006),0.022 −0.04 (− 0.08, − 0.006), 0.025  
FSH (mIu/ml) Baseline 4.49 (0.05) 4.53 (0.48) −0.05 (− 0.35, 0.25), 0.751**
End 4.47 (0.05) 4.52 (0.47) 0.024 (−0.08, 0.13), 0.652***
MD (95% CI), P* −0.01 (− 0.03, 0.004), 0.124 − 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.005), 0.146  
DHEA-S (μg/dl) Baseline 246.09 (9.58) 242.56 (7.42) 3.53 (−1.66, 8.72), 0.177**
End 241.66 (5.65) 241.91 (5.88) 2.87(−10.72, 16.47), 0.671***
MD (95% CI), P* −4.43(−8.64, −0.22),0.040 −0.65(−4.52, 3.21),0.730  
Total testosterone (ng/ml) Baseline 0.65 (0.06) 0.69 (0.08) −0.03 (− 0.08, 0.01), 0.121**
End 0.59 (0.03) 0.66 (0.07) −0.06 (− 0.12,- 0.004), 0.036***
MD (95% CI), P* −0.06 (− 0.08,-0.04), < 0.001 −0.03 (− 0.03, − 0.02), < 0.001  
SHBG (nmol/L) Baseline 25.83 (1.12) 25.76 (1.02) 0.72 (−0.58, 0.72), 0.824**
End 26.28 (1.13) 25.97 (0.79) −0.52 (−2.02, 0.97), 0.483***
MD (95% CI), P* 0.45 (0.06, 0.84), 0.026 0.22 (−0.01, 0.44), 0.057  
FAI Baseline 8.82 (0.98) 9.28 (1.07) −.46 (−1.09, 0.16), 0.143**
End 7.87 (0.48) 8.83 (0.94) −0.67 (−1.5, 0.19), 0.121***
MD (95% CI), P* −0.95 (−1.25, − 0.66), < 0.001 −0.45 (− 0.58, − 0.32), < 0.001  
  1. DHEAS Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, FAI free androgen index, FBG fasting blood glucose, FSH Follicle stimulating hormone, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, LH Luteinizing hormone, NEFA non-esterified fatty acids (or free fatty acids), QUICKI quantitative insulin sensitivity check Index, SHBG sex hormone-binding globulin. Mean (SD) and mean difference (95% CI) are presented for data.* P based on Paired samples t-test.** P based on Independent samples t-test. *** P based on ANCOVA adjusted for baseline values and confounding factors (age, baseline BMI, and the changes in weight, calorie intake, and physical activity level during the study)