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Table 2 Anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of the study participants at the baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention

From: The effects of spinach-derived thylakoid supplementation in combination with calorie restriction on anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

   Thylakoid group (n = 21) Placebo group (n = 23) MD (95% CI), P
Weight (kg) Baseline 89.21 (6.50) 88.14 (7.27) 1.06 (− 3.14, 5.27), 0.612**
End 82.23 (6.16) 84.95 (6.87) −3.71 (− 4.03, − 3.39), < 0.001***
MD (95% CI), P* −6.97 (−7.21, − 6.73), < 0.001 − 3.19 (− 3.50, − 2.88), < 0.001  
BMI (kg/m2) Baseline 35.13 (2.16) 35.31 (2.77) − 0.18 (− 1.71, 1.34), 0.808**
End 32.38 (2.08) 34.03 (2.60) − 1.47 (− 1.59,- 1.35), < 0.001***
MD (95% CI), P* −2.74 (− 2.82, − 2.66), < 0.001 −1.28 (− 1.41, − 1.15), < 0.001  
WC (cm) Baseline 108.09 (3.89) 108.18 (4.22) − 0.08 (− 2.56, 2.39), 0.944**
End 100.31 (4.58) 104.46 (3.75) −4.00 (− 5.25, − 2.76), < 0.001***
MD (95% CI), P* −7.78 (−8.92, − 6.65), < 0.001 −3.73 (− 4.33, − 3.12), < 0.001  
WHR Baseline 0.92 (0.01) 0.93 (0.01) −0.01 (− 0.02, − 0.001),0.022**
End 0.87 (0.03) 0.92 (0.02) −0.04 (− 0.05,- 0.03), < 0.001***
MD (95% CI), P* −0.06 (− 0.06, − 0.04), < 0.001 −0.02 (− 0.02, − 0.01), < 0.001  
FM (kg) Baseline
End
MD (95% CI), P*
32.40 (3.46)
27.21 (3.31)
−5.19 (− 5.43, −4.94), < 0.001
32.17 (3.90)
30.82 (3.90)
−1.35 (− 1.52, − 1.18), < 0.001
0.22 (− 2.03, 2.47), 0.843**
−3.79 (− 4.08, − 3.51), < 0.001***
FFM (kg) Baseline
End
MD (95% CI), P*
56.79 (3.21)
55.01 (3.09)
− 1.78 (− 1.94, − 1.62), < 0.001
55.96 (3.53)
54.13 (3.13)
− 1.83 (− 2.11, − 1.56), < 0.001
0.82 (− 1.23, 2.88), 0.422**
0.07 (− 0.20, 0.34), 0.613***
Energy (Kcal) Baseline 2346.3 (399.96) 2297.8 (446.26) 48.46 (− 210.31, 307.24), 0.707**
End 1749.37 (117.60) 1711.3 (119.84) − 0.002 (− 0.004, 0.000), 0.129***
MD (95% CI), P* − 596.96 (− 791.85, − 402.08), < 0.001 − 586.55 (− 790.50, − 382.60), < 0.001  
Carbohydrates (g) Baseline 333.24 (57.00) 326.82 (62.21) 6.41 (−30.00, 42.83), 0.724**
End 240.54 (16.17) 235.31 (16.48) 2.14 (−2.51, 6.79), 0.357***
MD (95% CI), P* −92.70 (− 120.55, − 64.85), < 0.001 − 91.52 (− 119.64, − 63.39), < 0.001  
Carbohydrates (%Kcal) Baseline
End
MD (95% CI), P*
56.85 (1.25)
55.01 (0.01)
−1.84 (−2.41, − 1.27), < 0.001
56.99 (1.62)
55.04 (0.03)
− 1.99 (− 2.69, − 1.28), < 0.001
− 0.14 (− 1.03, 0.74), 0.75**
0.00 (0.00, 0.00), 1.00***
Protein (g) Baseline 63.72 (13.93) 62.48 (15.56) 1.23 (−7.78, 10.25), 0.784**
End 65.60 (4.41) 64.17 (4.49) 0.69 (−0.05, 1.44), 0.066***
MD (95% CI), P* 1.88 (−4.92, 8.69),0.570 1.69 (−5.42, 8.80),0.627  
Protein (%Kcal) Baseline
End
MD (95% CI), P*
10.78 (0.50)
15.00 (0.00)
4.21 (3.98, 4.44), < 0.001
10.77 (0.58)
15.01 (0.00)
4.23 (3.97, 4.48), < 0.001
0.012 (−0.32, 0.34), 0.94**
0.00 (0.00, 0.00), 1.00***
Fat (g) Baseline 84.28 (13.73) 82.30 (16.00) 1.98 (−7.12, 11.09), 0.662**
End 58.31 (3.92) 57.04 (3.99) 0.78 (−0.75, 2.32), 0.308***
MD (95% CI), P* −25.97 (−32.56,-19.37), < 0.001 − 25.25 (− 32.64, −17.86), < 0.001  
Fat (%Kcal) Baseline
End
MD (95% CI), P*
32.37 (1.30)
30.20 (0.03)
− 2.37 (− 2.96,-1.77), < 0.001
32.24 (1.58)
30.11 (0.00)
− 2.13 (− 2.92,-1.55), < 0.001
0.13 (− 0.75, 1.01), 0.76**
0.00 (0.00, 0.00), 1.00***
Cholesterol (mg) Baseline 202.70 (39.18) 198.20 (44.45) 4.49 (− 21.10, 30.10), 0.725**
End 200.39 (27.74) 190.62 (37.42) 8.49 (−8.34, 25.32), 0.313***
MD (95% CI), P* −2.30 (−19.07, 14.46), 0.777 −7.58 (− 20.59, 5.44), 0.240  
MUFA (g) Baseline 20.15 (3.29) 17.20 (3.33) 2.95 (0.93, 4.97), 0.005**
End 13.93 (0.86) 11.91 (0.78) −0.26 (− 0.61, 0.09), 0.143***
MD (95% CI), P* −6.22 (−7.79, −4.65), < 0.001 −5.28 (− 6.83, −3.74), < 0.001  
PUFA (g) Baseline 41.85 (6.99) 42.81 (8.42) − 0.96 (−5.70, 3.77), 0.685**
End 28.96 (2.15) 29.68 (2.27) −0.27 (−1.06, 0.52), 0.491***
MD (95% CI), P* −12.89 (− 16.19, −9.60), < 0.001 − 13.13 (− 16.98, − 9.28), < 0.001  
SFA (g) Baseline
End
MD (95% CI), P*
15.83 (2.69)
11.04 (1.26)
−4.78 (−6.00, − 3.57), < 0.001
14.02 (2.74)
9.72 (0.72)
− 4.30 (− 5.56, − 3.04), < 0.001
1.81 (0.15, 3.47), 0.033**
0.04 (− 0.12, 0.20), 0.585***
Fiber (g) Baseline
End
MD (95% CI), P*
19.16 (5.52)
21.13 (5.38)
1.97 (− 1.23, 5.16), 0.213
20.96 (3.88)
22.59 (4.54)
1.62 (− 0.52, 3.76), 0.130
−1.81 (− 4.69, 1.08), 0.213**
− 0.98 (− 4.16, 2.20), 0.535***
  1. Abbreviation: BMI body mass index, WC Waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, FM fat mass, FFM fat free mass, SFA saturated fatty acid, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid; % Kcal, percentage of energy. Data are expressed as mean (standard deviation) and mean difference (95% CI). P*: Denotes the significance of within-group changes (Paired samples t- test). P**: P values indicate comparison between groups at baseline (Independent sample t-test for baseline). P***: P values indicate comparison between groups based on ANCOVA adjusted for baseline measures and confounding factors (age, baseline BMI, and the changes in weight, calorie intake, and physical activity level during the study)