Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of children and adolescents 2-16 years from the Australian National Nutrition Surveys 1995, 2007 and 2011–12

From: Weekday snacking prevalence, frequency, and energy contribution have increased while foods consumed during snacking have shifted among Australian children and adolescents: 1995, 2007 and 2011–12 National Nutrition Surveys

Characteristic National Nutrition Survey
1995 2007 2011–12  
Mean SE CI (95%) Mean SE CI (95%) Mean SE CI (95%) P-value
N 2340    3637   2281   
Males (%) 51.7 1.0 49.6–53.7 51.3 1.0 49.6–52.9 49.8 1.0 47.7–51.8 0.39
Under-reporters* (%) 10.7 0.6 8.8–12.5 11.5 0.7 10.0–13.0 16.3 0.8 14.0–18.6 < 0.001
Age group (%)        < 0.001
 2-3 years 13.7 0.7 12.3–15.2 12.6 0.7 11.6–13.7 13.6 0.7 12.2–15.0  
 4-8 years 34.0 1.0 32.0–35.9 35.0 1.0 33.5–36.6 32.8 1.0 30.8–34.7  
 9-13 years 32.4 1.0 30.5–34.3 32.9 1.0 31.4–34.5 35.2 1.0 33.2–37.1  
 14-16 years 19.9 0.8 18.3–21.6 19.4 0.8 18.1–20.6 18.5 0.8 16.8–20.1  
BMI z-score (mean SE) 0.47a 0.02 0.42–0.51 0.63b 0.02 0.59–0.67 0.60a,b 0.03 0.55–0.66 < 0.001
Waist:height ratio (mean SE) 0.46a 0.00 0.46–0.46 0.47a 0.00 0.47–0.47 0.48b 0.00 0.48–0.48 < 0.001
Weight status (%)        < 0.001
 Normal weight 72.5 0.9 70.6–74.3 67.3 1.0 65.7–68.8 67.8 1.0 65.7–70.0  
 At risk for overweight 14.0 0.7 12.6–15.5 15.3 0.7 14.2–16.5 12.7 0.7 11.2–14.2  
 Overweight 13.5 0.7 12.1–14.9 17.4 0.8 16.2–18.6 19.5 0.8 17.7–21.3  
Waist to Height: Ratio (%)        < 0.001
 < 0.5 77.1 0.9 75.4–78.9 74.3 0.9 72.9–75.7 66.3 1.0 64.1–68.5  
 ≥ 0.5 22.9 0.9 21.1–24.6 25.7 0.9 24.3–27.1 33.7 1.0 31.5–35.9  
  1. Different superscripts a,b denote significant difference between years (post hoc, Bonferroni, P < 0.001).
  2. *Participants were classified as under-reporters based on the Goldberg cut-off limit of 0.9 for EI:BMR(44)
  3. Calculated using the standard normal distribution of BMI z-scores: normal weight (< 85%), at risk for overweight (≥ 85% to <95%), overweight (≥ 95%)
  4. In children a waist circumference to height ratio of <0.5 is associated with a low risk of metabolic complications from obesity, whereas a ratio of >0.5 is associated with a higher risk [56]. Therefore, a waist circumference to height ratio of 0.5 was used as a cut-off for waist circumference and risk of metabolic complications
  5. P-values for the comparison between the years 1995, 2007 and 2011–12. Chi-square tests were performed for categorical variables and ANOVA for numerical variables